Try within the Progress and Background of Plate Tectonics
Plate tectonics originates from two phrases; plate and tectonic. Plate in geological conditions means a large slab of challenging rock while tectonics in Greek implies’ to build’. Therefore’ plate tectonic is often defined as how the earth’s is developed on relocating the plate. It could possibly also be well-defined as being a rigid segment of the Earth’s lithosphere that moves independently from those bordering it (Rodger, 1993). Theory of plate tectonics states that the lithosphere on the earth is made up of individual plates which might be fragmented into a number of huge and smaller parts of stable rock. The plates transfer future to each other on top of the decrease mantle to create assorted forms of plate borders that have shaped the Earth’s landscape in excess of quite a few many years. (Oreske & Legrand, 2001). Alfred Wegener, a popular meteorologist, is known to be the founder of your plate tectonic theory; He noticed the coastline of East South America and that of west coast of Africa seemed to fit together in a jigsaw manner like to form a bigger plate. He then proposed an idea that all plates (continents) were once connected to a single substantial plate called Pangaea which gradually began to drift apart over 300 million decades ago (Rodger, 1993). More scientific research to the plates’ coastline revealed that all the plate of earth’s continent somehow fit together. The concept was commonly known as continental drift theory, and Wegener became the founder of the idea on which scientist have based their research on. However, Alfred Wegener plate tectonics concept could not ascertain how exactly the continents drifted away from every single other. He proposed the earth’s rotations and the centrifugal forces towards the equator as one of the possible mechanism for continental drift. He said that Pangaea started at South Pole and earth’s rotation finally caused it to break up, sending continents toward the equator. His theories were discarded by the scientific community (Rodger, 1993). Arthur Holmes, (1929), a British geologist, came up with the theory of thermal convection to explain the gradual drift in the Earth’s continents. He based on heating and cooling cycle with the Earth’s mantle that caused the continents to shift. The idea has been borrowed by scientist community in their quest for earth’s shape. Today scientist have researched and analyzed past evidences and findings by geologist and scientist to expound and come up with a better ways of explaining plate tectonic concept and forces that were behind the drifting from the plates. It is believed and proofed using geological evidence that earth’s plate at one time was one super plate called Pangaea. Due to three main driving forces namely, mantle convection, gravity, and the Earth’s rotation led to the drifting away of numerous plate from the main one. Many major plates (continents) were formed which include North America, South America, Eurasia, Africa, Indo-Australian, Pacific, and Antarctica. Expounding over the three main driving forces for the movement on the Earth’s tectonic plates; Mantle convection is the most extensively studied technique of tectonic plate movement. It was widely discussed by Holmes in 1929, in his idea. The huge convection current of molten material in the Earth’s upper mantle produces a lot of energies which is transferred to lessen mantle. The decreased mantle material finds their way to the crust causing the embedded rock to shift out and away from the ridge thus transferring the plate. Evidence of this is shown at mid-ocean ridges. Gravity is evidenced by the mid-ocean ridges where the elevation is higher than the surrounding ocean floor. Convection currents within the Earth cause reduced mantle material to rise and spread away from the ridge, causing the older material to flow toward the ocean floor due to gravity and aid in the movement of the plates. Then lastly earth rotation is caused by centrifugal forces as earth rotates (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). buyessay.co/essay-for-sale Plates form different kinds of boundary as they interact with their movement. Some on the boundaries formed include Divergent boundaries form when a plate breaks along certain lines of weakness and move away from just about every other forming a new crust, for instance, Mid-ocean ridges. The other boundary is called Convergent boundaries and is created when two plates collide with one another causing the sinking of one plate below the other. Transform boundaries forms at location where new crust created and without destroying it. Today, through research, scientists have come up with many evidences proving that earth plates were once super plate which split into the current Continents. Some on the evidences include: the jig-saw fitting from the East coast of South America and west coast of Africa appear to fit into one another; Fossils remains of plants and animals collected by scientist around the world showed similarities that were hard to explain unless continents had once been joined. For instance, Cynognathus was a land reptile. Its Fossils remains have been found in both Africa and South America, thus proving the two continents were once joined (Oreskes $ Legrand, 2001). Scientist have also found out from the evidence of earthquakes happened continually and occurred along certain lines, near the boundaries between tectonic plates. As Wegener’s ideas forms the basis why the landscape on the earth is the way it is, scientist community have currently advanced methodology of studying the plate tectonic theory. They use satellite to study evidences of plate tectonic where they position it a lot of kilometers away from the earth surface. From the satellite statistics, it is evidenced the plates transfer linearly and away from every other at the speed of 10mm to 100mm per year, thus, proving the plate tectonic theory that is earth was once plate which gradually drifted apart around millions of yrs back to form the current continents.
Oreskes, N., & LeGrand, H. E. (2001). Plate tectonics: An insider’s record in the modern principle on the Earth. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press. Rogers, J. J. W. (1993). A background of your earth. New York, NY, USA: Cambridge University Press.